With this deteriorating situation of clean water in densely populated states, wastewater management is our best option. Since the procedure of removing contaminants will take decades of effort, the better solution would be to manage the wastewater. Fortunately, advanced technology can support us here. Today we have innovative and highly developed methods to treat wastewater. Here are some of the general methods used by wastewater treatment plants in India.
Physico-Chemical Treatment: Pollutants are generally divided based on their size and various methods are used accordingly. For example, bigger particles are moved apart through gravity, flotation, or filtration. However, compact particles are much more arduous to make apart. This is where physico-chemical treatment is specifically effective.
Chemicals known as flocculants and coagulants are used to divide them. This is a generally applied method to clean industrial waste. It is a superior method for the removal of suspended matter like heavy metals, inorganic substances, oil, and grease, as well as dissolved substances.
Biological cleaning: Unlike physico-chemical methods, biological treatment use organisms to treat pollutants. Over the years, scientists have evolved various aerobic or anaerobic processes to treat wastewater.
Recycle and Reuse: In this method, wastewater is recycled using the membrane-based system. Membrane bioreactors use the simple science of ultra-filtration with a bioreactor to treat wastewater. Briefly, the method integrates physic processes with biological methods. This is a frequently used method in industrial and municipal wastewater management. Treated water is recycled for multiple purposes, such as irrigation.
Zero Liquid Discharge System: Many people view this as cutting-edge technology in wastewater management. It eliminates all dissolved solids from the wastewater, offering us distilled water. Methods like RO are used to purify the water.
There are many areas where the requirement for wastewater management is terrible. Some of the areas of operation for wastewater treatment plants in India are:
- • Municipal water management for towns and cities
- • For utilization in rural areas, such as irrigation
- • Industrial sector
- • Desalination
- • Substantial building societies or colonies
Some of the challenges still faced in India are:
- • Lack of understanding
- • Lack of public-private partnership on wastewater management
- • Indifference by some governments
- • Lack of a coherent nationwide campaign
- • Variance in the quantity of wastewater and treatment plants
Wastewater treatment plants in India have become a major part of the landscape —significant in maintaining the health of our people and the land.